THE IVF PROCESS: HAPPINESS FROM HOPE
The term “in-vitro” means “outside the body.” A woman’s egg and a man’s sperm are combined during IVF therapy in a lab dish. The procedure can be carried out with the patient’s own eggs and sperm, as well as with donated sperm, eggs, or both. When an egg is fertilised, the sperm has joined and entered it.
IVF is advised for the following issues with fertility:
- If someone has any additional issues, such as clogged or damaged fallopian tubes.
- If the partner’s sperm has an issue. ICSI is a preferable option for treating serious issues.
- If previous reproductive treatments, such as IUI, or fertility medications have not been effective.
- If a woman has endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome, two common reproductive issues (PCOS).
- For couples that use embryo testing to prevent spreading a genetic disorder to their future offspring.
- for women who have had a tubal ligation, a kind of sterilisation in which the fallopian tubes are cut or closed to obviate pregnancy permanently.
- A woman’s fertility may be harmed if she is going to begin cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation.
Here is a description of how IVF works
IVF methods differ depending on the specific situation. In gestational surrogacy, when the fertilised egg is put into a surrogate’s uterus and the resultant kid is genetically unrelated to the surrogate, IVF procedures are also used.
Theoretically, IVF may be performed by removing the ovaries or fallopian tubes of a woman after natural ovulation, combining them with sperm, and then re-inserting the fertilised ova into the uterus. However, without further procedures, the likelihood of conception would be incredibly low.
The pair may need to have blood tests to check for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II before the therapy begins.
The stages of therapy for women are as follows:
suppressing the regular rhythm of menstruation
For around two weeks, women are given drugs to help suppress their menstrual cycles naturally.
Increasing egg production
To promote egg production, doctors use fertility drugs that include the hormone FSH. The ovaries generate more eggs than usual when FSH is present. Because some eggs won’t develop or fertilise after retrieval, many eggs are preferred.
Getting the eggs back
- The lady has a procedure called a follicular aspiration to extract her eggs.
- Following the procedure, the patient may feel some cramps, feel a bit uncomfortable and bruised, and/or have some vaginal bleeding.
- She will get medicine in the form of pessaries, injections, or gel to help prepare the lining of the womb for embryo transfer once the eggs have been extracted.
Embryo insemination and fertilisation
- The finest quality eggs are paired with sperm. Insemination is the process of combining sperm and egg.
- Then, sperm and eggs are kept in an environment-controlled space. The sperm finally penetrates (fertilises) an egg after a few hours.
- Even if everything seems normal, many fertility centres routinely do ICSI on some of the eggs.
- To ensure that fertilisation and cell division are occurring, the eggs are observed. The fertilised eggs are then regarded as embryos.
- The divided fertilised egg develops into an embryo. Preimplantation genetic diagnostics can be performed at this time to check an embryo for genetic abnormalities.
- In order to facilitate the uterine lining receiving the embryo, the woman is administered progesterone or HCG.
Following fertilisation and egg retrieval, embryos are implanted in the womb of a woman three to five days later
- The patient is awake during the operation, which is performed in the doctor’s office. A little tube holding the embryos is inserted by the doctor into the woman’s vagina, via her cervix, and up into her womb. Pregnancy happens when an embryo matures while adhering to the uterine lining.
- In the event that the surgery is successful, implantation usually happens six to ten days after egg retrieval.
- Although there is no need for anaesthesia and the treatment is pleasant, some people may suffer slight cramping.
- One or two embryos may be placed into a female under the age of 40. A maximum of three embryos may be used if the woman is above 40. Because of the dangers of multiple births, the number of embryo transfers is limited.
In the case of men, the treatment consists of:
- The sperm will be cleaned and treated in order to distinguish the higher-quality sperm from the active, typical sperm.
- If sperm from a previous pregnancy is utilised, it will be taken out of frozen storage, thawed, and processed similarly.
Once the procedure has been completed
- The mother may be recommended to relax the rest of the day after the embryo transfer.
- Unless there is a higher risk of OHSS, total bed rest is not required. The next day, most women resume their regular activities.
- To conceive, it typically takes 3 IVF sessions.
- Any of the following symptoms should prompt a patient to call their doctor right away:
- Fever of more than 100.5°F (38 C)
- Pelvic pain
- Significant vaginal bleeding or blood in the urine
In vitro fertilisation success rate
Numerous variables affect how the IVF Treatment in India turns out, which affects its success rate. IVF success rate variables include:
- Age of the woman – This provides a strong indication of her ovarian reserve.
- Rates of successful or unsuccessful fertilisation and cleavage during the in vitro process.
- The quantity of eggs recovered, their degree of maturation, and their quality are all crucial factors.
- The total number of transplanted and cryopreserved embryos.
- Whether the post-transfer luteal phase is sufficient or not
- The success rate of IVF is very significantly influenced by the underlying reason of infertility.